Investing in Human Rights – Volume 1 page – 8

Investing in Human Rights – Volume 1

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PHILIPPINES – Mining a Sacred Mountain: Protecting the human rights of indigenous communities

Table of Contents

 The Research Team


Preparation of the Case Study


Human rights in principle

Research on the Investment

The company

The contract

Home-state involvement

Adapting the Methodology to the Case Study

Outcomes of the Research

The human right to self-determination

The human right to security of the person

The human right to an adequate standard of living

The human right to adequate housing

The human right to favourable conditions of work

The human right to education

Conclusions and Recommendations

• Recommendations

– For the government of the Philippines

– For the company



The Research Team


• Siocon Subanon Association Apu’ Manglang Glupa Pusaka

• Save Siocon Paradise Movement (SSPM)

• Pigsalabukan Bansa Subanon – Subanon Federation (PBS)

• The Legal Rights and Natural Resources Center, Inc.- Kasama sa Kalikasan
(LRC-KSK/Friends of the Earth-Philippines)

• The DIOPIM Committee on Mining Issues (DCMI)

• Philippine Indigenous Peoples Links (PIPLinks)

• MiningWatch Canada (MWC)

• Tebtebba

Special thanks to:

Ms. Penelope Sanz (Mindanawon Initiatives for Cultural Dialogue), research coordinator.




Philippines - carte

In 2005, the Canadian company TVI Pacific Inc. officially opened the Canatuan mine on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, although the company had a presence in the area for several years before. Producing gold, silver, copper, and zinc, the open- pit mine has created some jobs in an impoverished area and generated revenues for the indebted national government. However, it has also displaced many families; divided the local indigenous people, known as the Subanon; deprived thousands of small-scale miners of their livelihood; and negatively affected rice farmers and fishers living downstream. Because of increased levels of sediment and metals in local rivers and creeks. One of the most controversial aspects of the mine is that it is located on the peak of Mount Canatuan, which the Subanon living in the area consider to be sacred.

Mindanao has been the site of a sustained conflict between various Muslim groups and the Philippine government for the last three decades. TVI Resource Development (Philippines) Inc., the subsidiary operating the mine, has hired personnel from the Philippine army to provide security. These security forces have cleared people from the area, including indigenous peoples and small-scale miners, and confronted local demonstrators. Some confrontations have been violent. Members of the Subanon have repeatedly complained about the mine and related human rights issues to the Philippine government. They also brought their case to the UN Working Group on Indigenous Peoples.

A coalition of local and international organizations, including indigenous, church-based and commu- nity groups, conducted a human rights impact assessment of the mine, piloting the draft methodology provided by Rights & Democracy.1 Several of the local groups involved have been clear in their opposition to the mine for some time. This caused tensions during the assessment because the company and some local groups questioned their credibility. The coalition tried to canvass all points of view, including those of TVI Resource Development, which co-operated with the assessment.

The central finding of this report is that the investment has had a negative impact on the ability of the Subanon to enjoy the human right to self-determination, to human security, to an adequate standard of living, to adequate housing, to work and to education.


Preparation of the Case Study



The Philippines is an island nation located in the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia. It was colonized by Spain (1521-1898) and the United States (1902-1936), and was occupied by the Japanese during World War II before becoming an independent country in 1946. Ferdinand Marcos was president and then dictator of the country from 1965 until 1986, when he was forced from power by a popular movement. Governments have since been elected democratically, although corruption has been a persistent problem.2 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the current president, took power in 2001 when Joseph Estrada resigned due to allegations of corruption. She won re-election in 2004, but her government has since been undermined by a series of scandals.

During the Marcos regime, the military was used to protect the economic and political interests of the country’s elite, resulting in grave abuses of human rights. People considered to be opponents of the regime were subject to torture, arrest, and detention. Many disappeared.3 The current government has also been criticized for its human rights record. Many activists, journalists and community leaders have been killed or declared missing. In 2006, the Philippines was tied with Afghanistan as the second most dangerous country in the world for journalists, after Iraq.4 Few perpetrators are caught and brought to justice.

The population of the Philippines is estimated to be about 90 million people.5 One quarter of them live on the large, southern island of Mindanao, where many of the richest mineral deposits are found.6 Despite this resource wealth, many of the people of Mindanao live in abject poverty. This is especially true of those living on the peninsula of Zamboanga, where the mine operated by TVI Resource Development (Philippines) Inc. is located.

Mindanao, with a mainly Christian population, is the site of a conflict which began in 1970 between Muslim separatists and the Philippine government. Groups involved in this armed conflict include the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the Abu Sayyaf Group, and the New People’s Army. In 1995, the Abu Sayyaf Group torched the town of Ipil on the Zamboanga peninsula. In May 2003, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front attacked the town of Siocon, where the TVI mine is situated, killing 22 people and injuring many more. An estimated 120,000 people have died and millions more have been displaced in more than three decades of fighting.7

Economic growth in the Philippines has lagged behind that of its East Asian neighbours. Foreign debt is estimated to be 3.96 trillion Philippine pesos (US $77 billion). This does not include sizeable domestic debts. About half of the existing debt has been incurred under President Arroyo.

The Philippines is rich in mineral resources, including gold, copper, nickel, and chromite which is used in the manufacture of steel and certain chemicals.8 However, these resources have not been well developed for a variety of reasons, including continuing political unrest and opposition from farmers and fishers concerned with the environmental impact of mining. Heavy seasonal rains and frequent seismic activity (the Philippines is in a zone prone to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions known as the Pacific Rim of Fire), have also affected mining activity.

In an effort to improve economic growth and increase revenues (which it needs in part to pay debts), the government has liberalized the legal regime for mining, passing the Revised Philippine Mining Act in 1995. The legislation was drawn up with the help of the World Bank. In 2002, a new national mineral policy was implemented by executive order. It streamlined government procedures to grant mining permits to foreign investors. A 2004 ruling by the Philippine Supreme Court allowed foreign companies to own 100% of mining operations, eliminating the previous limit of 40%.9 The Chamber of Mines of the Philippines says that large-scale mining will provide additional revenue for the government and jobs in isolated mining areas.10

However, much of the mining and exploration is taking place in sensitive areas, provoking local opposition. One such place is on the Zamboanga Peninsula on the island of Mindanao. The peninsula is home to approximately 350,000 indigenous people known collectively as the Subanon (also known as Subanen, Subanan, and Subanun).11 They are mainly farmers or fishers and revere a common ancestor called Apu Manglang.12 Their highest traditional council in the region of the mine is the Council of the Seven Rivers, a group of traditional leaders.

For the Subanon of the southern peninsula, Mount Canatuan is a sacred place and they want the area to remain untouched.13 Historically, it was where leader Apu Manglang made a covenant with the Apu Sanag, an immortal being, to save the people from a disease that was ravaging the community.14 It is also where the boklog, the highest ritual for Thanksgiving, is performed every seven years. The peak of Mount Canatuan, according to the Subanon was not for occupation, flamboyant use, or architectural manifestations.15 However, they have had difficulty protecting the area because laws governing land use and land ownership have not been respected, allowing multinational firms to establish a presence in the area.

Small-scale miners began working in the area in the 1980s, against the wishes of some of the local Subanon. By the 1990s, when TVI Resource Development arrived, there were thousands of small-scale miners working in the area.

Human rights in principle

The Philippines has ratified the following UN human rights treaties: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1986); the optional protocol to that covenant (1989); the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1974); the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (1967); the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990); and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1981).

Regarding the protection of indigenous people’s rights, a major step was taken at the international level when members of the UN Human Rights Council adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in June 2006.16 Among other things, the declaration recognizes the urgent need to respect and promote the inherent rights of indigenous peoples, especially their rights to lands, territories and resources, which derive from their political, economic and social structures, and from their cultures, spiritual traditions, histories and philosophies. It is important to mention that a national Philippine law, the 1997 Indigenous Peoples Rights Act, is based on the same principles as the UN declaration.

Resource law in the Philippines has its roots in the Regalian Doctrine, imposed by the Spanish, under which all natural resources belonged to the state.17 When the United States became the colonial power, it imposed land laws that discriminated against non-Christian native people.18 The 1987 Philippine constitution formally recognized the rights of indigenous peoples.19 It says that the state is obliged to protect the right of indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral land and to ensure their economic, social and cultural well-being.20 The constitution also says that the state should apply customary laws governing property rights or relations, especially in determining the ownership and extent of ancestral domain.

The Mining Act of 1995 includes a provision stating there should be no mining on ancestral lands without the prior consent of the indigenous people. The act also states that agreement must be reached with indigenous communities on a royalty from the mining, which will be used for their socioeconomic wellbeing. A 1996 revision said this royalty must, at a minimum, be equivalent to 1% of the gross revenue of the mine.21

The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act stipulates that the state should guarantee respect for the cultural integrity of indigenous people and ensure that they benefit equally from rights and opportunities that national laws and regulations grant to other members of the population. The act also says that the right to ancestral domains includes the right to ownership, the right to develop lands and natural resources, the right to stay in the territories, the right to redress in case of displacement, the right to regulate entry of migrants settlers and organizations, the right to safe and clean air and water, the right to claim parts of reservations, and the right to resolve conflict. There are special protections for political systems and decision-making processes.

The constitutionality of the provisions on ancestral domain in the act was challenged in the Supreme Court of the Philippines on grounds that the provisions contravene the Regalian Doctrine.22 However, the Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2000.


Research on the Investment


The company

TVI Resource Development (Philippines) Inc. was incorporated in the Philippines on January 18th 1994. It is a subsidiary of the Canadian mining company, TVI Pacific Inc., which has its headquarters in Alberta and is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange. The Canadian company owns 40% of TVI Resource Development (Philippines) through two wholly owned subsidiaries based in Hong Kong and Anguilla, in the Caribbean. At least 19 other companies from Canada, the Philippines,23 and elsewhere own the remaining 60%.24

TVI Pacific, the Canadian company, was incorporated in Alberta in 1987 and spent several years exploring for minerals in Canada before looking abroad. Clifford M. James is the president, chairman and chief executive officer of TVI.

The Canadian company began looking for opportunities in the Philippines in 1993 and set up corporate offices in Manila that year. The Canatuan mine, which is operated by its Philippine subsidiary, TVI Resource Development, is its only operating mine. The mine contains deposits of gold, silver, copper, and zinc.

TVI Pacific owns a drilling company and a mineral-processing firm in the Philippines. It is also exploring for minerals elsewhere in the Philippines and in China.25

The contract

The history of the Canatuan mine contract begins with Ramon Bosque, a small-scale miner who moved into the area to prospect. Mr. Bosque, who is not a Subanon, registered a mining claim and then applied for a prospecting permit in 1990 for a large area within the Central Zamboanga Forest Reserve that included Mount Canatuan. In 1991, he teamed up with Benguet Corp., a Philippine gold mining firm established in 1903,26 and was given the prospecting permit. Together they applied for a Mineral Production Sharing Agreement in 1992. Under such an agreement, the government grants a company the right to conduct mining operations in exchange for a share of final mine production.27

In 1994, TVI Pacific set up the Philippine subsidiary that signed an agreement in Canatuan with the Benguet Corp. for an option to explore the area and to purchase the Mineral Production Sharing Agreement, which was still making its way through the government approval process. The Philippine government approved the Mineral Production Sharing Agreement with Mr. Bosque and Benguet Corp. in 1996. They then assigned it to TVI Resource Development in 1997. The government approved this transaction in 1998.28 Under the terms of the assignment, Mr. Bosque receives a 1% royalty and Benguet Corp. has the option of buying back into the project.29

Under the Mineral Production Sharing Agreement, which has a 25-year term, the company is obliged to protect the environment, assist in the development of local communities, and also help the development of mining technology and the geosciences in the Philippines. In terms of community development, the company agreed to respect local rights, customs and traditions; allocate funds for community development; improve local education, water, electricity and medical services; and give preference to Filipino citizens in the area when it hires employees for the mine operations.

The agreement also says the company will pay a royalty equivalent to 1% of the market value of minerals and mineral products produced by the mine to the indigenous people who had a valid ancestral domain claim. The indigenous community in receipt of the royalty must draw up a management plan.30

In 2003, TVI Resource Development followed up on the commitments made in its agreement with the government by signing a memorandum of agreement with the Siocon Subanon Association Inc. Under this second agreement, the company committed funds for the preparation of a plan to protect the ancestral domain. It agreed to provide additional school buildings and a vocational building for the local community. As well, it agreed to pay the legally required royalty to the Siocon Subanon Association Inc. In return, the association promised to use all its efforts to ensure that the company could conduct its mining operations free of harassment and interference.31

TVI Resource Development did not begin operations immediately after taking over the Canatuan site because it had difficulty raising money, due in part to opposition from the local community. In order to raise money, the company increased its authorized capital stock in 1997 and also registered with the Board of Investment of the Philippines as a preferred pioneer enterprise engaged in mineral exploration. This gave it access to certain government incentives, including a tax exemption on the import of capital equipment and a tax credit on domestic equipment.32

Operations began in 2002, when the company started processing tailings already on the site that had been produced by small-scale miners, who had been digging there since the 1980s.33 The processing was done at a cyanide processing plant, which had been in place since the mid-1990s, and it was done at a rate of 50 tonnes a day. This type of processing stopped in January 2004 when the tailings ran out.34

In 2004, the company began open-pit mining in the area and expanded its processing plant so that it could handle 450 tonnes a day. The mine and new processing facilities were officially opened January 1st 2005. The plant has since been expanded and was processing an average of 1,800 tonnes a day by the end of September 2006.

The company said that in the first nine months of 2006, the Canatuan mine produced 34,490 ounces of gold, 453,115 ounces of silver, and 42,976 ounces of gold equivalent, a measure used when gold is found in combination with another metal such as silver. Corporate profits for the nine-month period were CDN $8.7 million.35 The company employs 628 people at the Canatuan project, which is expected to end in 2008.36

The Canatuan mine lies within the boundaries of the town of Siocon. In 1989, the Subanon living in Canatuan created the Siocon Subanon Association Inc. and then used this group to apply for a Forest Stewardship Management Agreement. They received this agreement, which recognized their right to manage their own forests, in 1991. Two years later, individuals within the group applied for a Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim, which was awarded in 1997 and later converted into a Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title in 2003.37 This certificate is held by individuals and not by any particular Subanon group. All of these moves were made to protect their rights to their ancestral lands.

When the Subanon learned that Mr. Bosque had been given a prospecting permit by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the Siocon Federation Subanen Tribal Council approached the Office of Southern Cultural Communities and the local town leaders for advice on how to defend their rights. The town leaders told them they did not have to worry because they were the rightful owners of the land.38

In 1992, a number of Subanon groups got together and approached government officials and agencies to protest against the presence of Mr. Bosque and his band of small-scale miners on their ancestral lands.

None of the protests by indigenous people appear to have been recorded by the Mines and Geosciences Bureau, the arm of the government that issued the Mineral Production Sharing Agreement to Mr. Bosque and Benguet Corp. in 1996. Leo Jasareno of the bureau told the research team that there was little coordination at that time between his agency and the Department of Energy and Natural Resources, even though his bureau is a sub-agency of the department. It was not until 1997 that the bureau received the Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim (that the Subanon had applied for in 1993), which recognized the land was their ancestral territory.39 The fact that the certificate, which establishes indigenous rights to the land, was officially issued after the Mineral Production Sharing Agreement is a key element in this dispute. It should be noted that where there is a Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim, the Department of Energy and Natural Resources should not issue any licence without the prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples.40

The tension in Canatuan worsened during the 1990s as thousands more small-scale miners, some of the Subanon, flooded into the area in search of gold. Eventually the Subanon found common cause with some of these miners, who feared that large-scale mining would force them out of the area. Thus the situation in Canatuan was tense when TVI Resources Development entered the picture.

Home-state involvement

Through its embassy in the Philippines, the Canadian government has supported the mining activities of TVI Resource Development. Two ambassadors have visited the site, and have praised the company as a responsible miner. 41 Canada and the Philippines signed a bilateral investment treaty in 1996. The agreement requires that foreign investors be given fair and equitable treatment in line with international law.

In a controversial move, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) channelled funds earmarked for local initiatives through the mining company between 2003 and 2005. The funds were meant to be used to buy goats for local women. The CIDA personnel in the Canadian Embassy in Manila were well aware of the long-standing conflict in Mindanao when, in June 2003, they approved the program financed by the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives.42 However, they did not request a Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment to assess the possible human rights ramifications of the project, as was done for other Canadian development projects in the region.43

According to CIDA, the money was channelled through the mining company’s community development officer because the local community did not have the capacity to administer the program.44 In the course of the project, the local people made embassy officials aware of the specific human rights allegations against the mining company.45

In 2005, the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade tabled a report in the Canadian House of Commons recommending an investigation of the TVI Resource Development mine. It also called for the creation of clear legal norms in Canada to ensure its companies and residents are held accountable for environmental damage and human rights violations abroad. The report also urged the Canadian government to make its support for companies conditional on such companies meeting clearly defined standards for corporate social responsibility and human rights. The standing committee’s report argued that one way of holding companies to account is through human rights impact assessments.


Adapting the Methodology to the Case Study


A coalition of groups from the Philippines and abroad produced this human rights impact assessment. They include indigenous groups, legal experts, and nongovernmental organizations, including church-based groups with strong links to the region. The research was coordinated by a research fellow from the Mindanawon Initiatives for Cultural Dialogue program at Ateneo de Davao University. Material from the company and independent observers provided background information.

Our team modified the draft methodology designed by Rights & Democracy. We did not strictly follow the original structure of the research guide, which included a series of specific questions. Instead, we encouraged informal and open exchanges.

The coalition used the major human rights treaties that the Philippines has ratified as reference points when assessing the impact of the TVI Resource Development mine on the people in the area. The most important treaties in terms of the research are the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The group also refers to the UN Declaration on Indigenous Peoples because the 1997 Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of the Philippines is based on the same principles.

The TVI Resource Development mine has sparked heated debate in the Subanon community, which is now polarized on the issue. This made it difficult for our team to conduct the research. The Council of Elders, a Subanon group that supports the mine, refused to meet with the researchers at first, but later participated in a focus group discussion. The objectivity of the team was repeatedly questioned although it made an effort to canvass the full range of opinions. The team was also helped by the large volume of pre-existing materials.

The research began with a review of existing material and organized a workshop for farmers, fishers, small-scale miners and various communities, which was also attended by Rights & Democracy. The research team orally translated the research guide into language the communities would understand, solicited their ideas, and tried to gauge their understanding of human rights. They then broadened the consultations. This phase of the project involved a combination of storytelling, making maps of the area, and constructing timelines.

The research took 10 months. In that period, we conducted eight focus groups, interviewed 97 individuals from the community, and met with 35 key informants for in-depth interviews. In September 2006, we held a two-day meeting with community representatives so that we could clarify their views and add any information that had been overlooked.

TVI Resource Development participated in the research. The team visited the company compound twice during the course of this research, interviewing management and staff and reviewing documents. Unfortunately, the company recently changed management and the team found that the new staff lacked institutional memory. The company conducted its own human rights impact assessment and hired experts to conduct an evaluation. It has not yet shared its report with the research team.

The researchers also met with representatives of the key Philippine government agencies involved with the mine, including the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples, the Mines and Geosciences Bureau, and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. They also met with officials from the Canadian Embassy.


Outcomes of the Research


The research focused on six human rights: the right to self-determination, to security, to an adequate standard of living, to adequate housing, to education, and to favourable conditions of work. These rights are enshrined in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which places obligations on its signatories, in this case the government of the Philippines, to uphold the human rights described in the covenant. Certain of these human rights are also enshrined in various national laws in the Philippines.

The human right to self-determination

In order to understand why the Subanon assert that their right to self-determination has been violated, it is necessary to understand their traditional leadership structure. A timuay, or traditional leader, heads each local territory. He is helped in his work by a soliling, who acts as his executive officer or secretary. Only Subanon who belong to the timuay or soliling lineage, which is established on a patrilineal basis, can legitimately fill these posts. Major disputes may be settled by a gathering of timuay from several local territories. This gathering is known as a gukom. The relevant gukom in the area of the TVI mine is comprised of the descendants of the seven traditional leaders of the seven rivers that flow through the area. The gukom of pito kodolongan, also known as the Council of Seven Rivers, will be referred to hereafter as the Gukom of Seven Rivers.

Under the leadership of Timuay Boy Anoy, the Subanon have been consistent in opposing large-scale mining claims on the grounds that Mount Canatuan holds spiritual and historical meaning for the tribe. However, the company has not acknowledged the sacred nature of the site. It denies that the mountain has any religious or cultural significance. However, an archeological impact assessment commissioned by the company in 2004 as part of its environmental impact assessment states that although Canatuan has no visible archaeological resources, a Subanon ritual (boklog) does exist.46

All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Article 1)

TVI Resource Development has not dealt with the rightful Subanon.47 Instead, when it came time to reach agreement with the indigenous people of the area over arrangements for the mine and the payment of royalties to them, both of which are required by the Mining Act of 1995, the company dealt with two groups that are not recognized as legitimate by the Gukom of Seven Rivers.48 Those groups are the Siocon Subanon Association Inc. — which was not led by a timuay at the time of the agreement — and the Council of Elders. The members of the Gukom of Seven Rivers, who are the traditional leaders in the area, believe the government and the company have not respected their human right to determine their own political structure and status.49

The Siocon Subanon Association was first created in 1989 to apply for forestry rights in the area. While the association is not a traditional Subanon political structure, its first leader was Timuay Boy Anoy, a traditional Subanon leader who opposed plans for the TVI mine. From 1994 to 2001, company representatives tried unsuccessfully to secure the endorsement of the recognised indigenous leaders, mainly through the head of the Siocon Subanon Association.50 In 2001, Pablo Bernardo, the attorney for the association, organized an election without the knowledge or sanction of Timuay Boy Anoy or his soliling. During this election, a new set of officers, who supported the mine, was established. Mr. Bernardo, who also supported the mine, is a Subanon, but he is not from the Canatuan area. Timuay Anoy and his secretary, Onsino Mato, challenged the elections. They argued that Mr. Bernardo did not have the authority to hold the elections, that he had not informed all of the current officers that the elections were taking place, and that the new head of the association, Juanito Tumangkis, was not of timuay lineage.51

Timuay Anoy and Mr. Mato intensified their campaign against TVI operations and took their case to court. In 2001, Mr. Mato also went to the UN Working Group on Indigenous Peoples to denounce the violations of the Subanon’s human right to self-determination, as well as other human rights violations in Canatuan. Despite these continued protests over the legitimacy of the association leadership, TVI chose to sign a memorandum of agreement with the new Siocon Subanon Association in 2003 and to transfer to that group the 1% royalty the company is required to pay the indigenous people.

That same memorandum of agreement gave certain status to the Council of Elders, another group whose legitimacy is rejected by Subanon, including the Gukom of Seven Rivers. The Council of Elders was initially formed in 2002 at the instigation of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples. The commission wanted to end the divisions among the Subanon and get them to work together. The Gukom of Seven Rivers, after conducting a genealogical validation in 2004, rejected the legitimacy of this group on the grounds that 21 of the 30 members were not of timuay lineage and that some were not even from the Canatuan area.52 As well, they said there was no precedent in the Subanon traditional culture for having such a council.53

Nevertheless, the Council of Elders is mentioned in the 2003 memorandum of agreement the company signed with the Siocon Subanon Association. The memorandum says the council gives its authorization to the Siocon Subanon Association to collect the royalty. It is not clear where the council’s authority comes from. The indigenous claim to the land is based on the Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title, which the government awarded a named group of Subanon individuals in 2003. It is not held in the name of the Council of Elders or the Siocon Subanon Association. Some, but not all, of the individual titleholders are members of the Council of Elders.

The Gukom of Seven Rivers says the Council of Elders has no authority in this matter. In signing the memorandum without the consent of the ancestral land holders, the Siocon Subanon Association and through it the Council of Elders have allowed the company to avoid compliance with the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 and the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997. Both acts state that ancestral land should not be mined without the prior consent of the indigenous people. The 1997 act also says that the National Commission on Indigenous People cannot issue an approval certificate for mining on ancestral land without obtaining, in advance, the free consent of the indigenous people affected.

The Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines investigated the matter of consent and concluded that the company had not obtained true prior consent from the indigenous people for the mine.54 A provincial officer of the National Commission on Indigenous People also said that this memorandum of agreement did not represent free, prior and informed consent, and that it was a “midnight deal” because it was executed with the wrong people.55 The Mines and Geosciences Bureau has stated that, “the lasting solution to the issues is for the company to come to terms with the rightful Subanon community”.56

While the details are complicated, the basic point being made by the Subanon of Canatuan is that the government and the company have ignored their traditional leadership structure. In particular, the company has dealt with groups who are neither recognized as legitimate authorities by the Gukom of Seven Rivers, nor as the legitimate ancestral land holders. Furthermore, the company has deprived the Subanon of their right to maintain their traditions and cultural practices. In doing this, Subanon feel that TVI Resource Development has violated their human right to self-determination.

The human right to security of the person

Security has been a concern in the area of the TVI mine since the 1970s because of the presence of the Abu Sayyaf Group and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The two groups have engaged in a low intensity armed conflict with the Philippine government for more than three decades. As well, the roads leading to Canatuan were considered risky in the 1990s because of robberies, ambushes and occasional murders.57

The mining company has a security force made up of auxiliary soldiers provided by the government. These members of the Special Civilian Armed Force Geographical Active Auxiliary (SCAA) are recruited, trained, and armed by the national military and are under the direct command of the Philippine Army.58 However, the company pays their salaries. One of the problems with security at the mine is the lack of clarity about whether the SCAA are accountable to the company or to the government. The company has said that the security forces are there not just to protect the mine, but also to protect the surrounding area against activities by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.59

In 2005, TVI Resource Development signed a memorandum of agreement with the 1st Infantry Division, Philippine Army. The agreement states that the army will provide auxiliary forces “to render security guarding services, maintain peace and order, guarding and protecting the installations and properties of the company… and such other places that may agreed upon… from theft, pilferage, robbery, arson and other unlawful acts by employees and or other threat groups”.60 At the time this report was written, the company had 628 employees, including the 160 members of its security force. They are armed with a variety of high-powered weapons.

Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Article 9)

Canatuan was not an empty space when TVI bought its rights from Benguet Corp. in 1994. The construction of a logging road and the fear that loggers and, later, miners would despoil the area led to the construction of houses by some of the local Subanon during the 1980s to guard their lands and sacred places.61 By the early 1990s, thousands small-scale miners had moved into the area. From the beginning, TVI faced opposition from the community and from small-scale miners, who say they have prior rights to mining the area. When it first arrived in the area, TVI immediately erected checkpoints at all the entry and exit points to Canatuan.62 Three checkpoints were erected on the road leading to the mining complex.63 At that time, employees of Golden Buddha Security Agency, a security firm based in Zamboanga City, manned these checkpoints, assisted by the SCAA.64

The security forces at the checkpoints were ordered by the company to control the passage of all travellers and to impose an economic blockade, especially on small-scale miners.65 They also prevented some people from entering the area.66 Anyone passing through the checkpoint was stopped. Some packages belonging to small-scale miners were confiscated.67

Local people have filed numerous complaints with the Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines, the Armed Forces and other authorities about the conduct of the security forces. The complaints cited the existence of the checkpoints themselves, as well as travel disruptions, a food blockade, acts of violence and intimidation, and delays in construction of buildings, including a school.68 After the Mineral Production Sharing Agreement was approved, abuse at the checkpoints appeared to worsen.69 Some checkpoints are now situated beyond the boundaries of the mining concession.70

There have been many violent incidents in the area of the mine. (See p. 48) In particular, in September 1999, members of the 903rd Philippine National Police Mobile Group violently dispersed a human barricade formed by Subanon attempting to prevent the company from bringing drilling equipment into their ancestral domain. The participants were beaten with sticks, tied and dragged on the ground.71 A criminal suit filed against the police was dismissed for want of probable cause.72

In December 2002, unknown assailants ambushed a company vehicle travelling to Siocon. Thirteen people, mostly local Subanon, were killed and 12 were injured. The dead included three SCAA, a mine employee, and nine civilians. The company beefed up its security following that incident.

The Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines has conducted at least four investigations into incidents at the TVI Resource Development mine.73 In one of its reports, the Commission recommended that “the petition for the cancellation and/or revocation of MPSA No. 054-96-IX, now pending before the Office of the Secretary of the DENR be closely monitored.”74 Despite the investigations and recommendations, the situation has not changed and the company still holds its Mineral Production Sharing Agreement. Most of the related legal challenges have not made it through the courts because the Subanon and small-scale farmers cannot afford the legal fees.

The company has recently reduced the number of checkpoints and has conducted a series of training courses on human rights for its security forces.

Local reports of violence and intimidation

Eusebia Rago, a small-scale miner, was with her husband and children on November 9th 1996, when armed men in military uniform arrived in the area where the family was mining. The men, whom Ms. Rago knew by name, pointed guns at them and ordered them to stop what they were doing because the area was owned by TvI. “We are just working a living here,” Ms. Rago told them. “We did not steal. We work hard to survive even if it causes us pain.” The men, who were members of the company’s security force, fired their guns in response. “If you will not stop what you are doing, something will happen to you,” one of them told her.75

Pedro Bolong, Toto Sumala and Boy Canga were at a canteen in Canatuan on November 10th 1996, when six SCAA approached them. The SCAA started drinking. After one hour, one of them, who was identified by the three men, drew a hand grenade and ordered them to leave.76

Anita Ansani was carrying vegetables she planned to sell in a village where small-scale miners lived when she was stopped at a checkpoint. She was turned back and warned not to return to the village.77

Macario Salacao, a Subanon traditional leader, was taking part in a picket line to prevent the mining company from bringing equipment into the area on March 17th 2004. A SCAA fired on the picketers, wounding four, including Mr. Salacao.78

Timuay Boy Anoy, a Subanon traditional leader was prevented by TvI’s SCAA from entering Canatuan in 1999. As one of the ancestral domain holders, he has the right to enter his ancestral domain when he so wishes. Nevertheless, a similar incident happened again in 2004.

The human right to an adequate standard of living

Siocon, the area where the mine is located, is the rice granary of Zamboanga del Norte. Eighty percent of the workforce is involved in agriculture or fishing. The mining company says its activities affect only 1% of the Siocon River watershed and thus contribute little to its degradation. However, the Canatuan and Lumot creeks, which run through the mining area, are tributaries of the Lituban River, which drains into the Siocon River. A 2005 company report on the environmental impact of its activities said that 95 hectares of the Canatuan Creek watershed were directly affected by the mining operation due to the construction of the three tailings dams, ancillary facilities and other mining related activities. The same report said that three hectares of the Lumot Creek watershed were directly affected.79

Farmers and fishers in the area surrounding the mine say that changes in water quality and the environment have had an impact on their lives and on their ability to make a living through farming and fishing. For example, farmers on the Litoban and Siocon rivers say increased sediment in the water has caused their irrigation equipment to break down.80 They also blame the rise in sediment for new rice diseases, which have forced them to move their crops to less fertile areas.81

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family,including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article II.I)

The Mines and Geosciences Bureau said the mine alone should not be blamed for the increase in sediment because a logging firm, David Consunji Logging Company, is also operating in the area.82 The mining company has built facilities in an attempt to resolve the problem. These include a mine waste dump close to the open-pit mine. However, the banks of this dump have been eroded by water. During a visit to the area, the research team noticed that erosion was taking place, even though the walls of the waste dump had been terraced to stabilize the embankment.83

The company also built 18 sediment ponds between 2004 and 2005 to reduce siltation in the water. Eight ponds were due to be built in 2006. Unfortunately, most of these ponds are already full, while some were abandoned because of massive bank erosion. A 2005 report by the Multipartite Monitoring Team (composed of representatives from the company, non-governmental organizations, the indigenous community and the government), said that despite company efforts, sediment was still increasing in local creeks and rivers.

Communities living along the coastline, especially in the area where the Siocon River flows into the sea, complain of high levels of sediment and a bitter taste in the water. It is unclear what is causing the bitter taste. The company has not yet built a treatment plant for this ore. The fishers say there are fewer fish close to the coast and they have to go farther out to sea to catch fish. This means they have to spend more money on fuel for their boats. Owners of fish farms, where prawns and milkfish are raised, report a higher mortality rate for their fingerlings and smaller harvests. They believe this is caused by poor water quality.

An increase in trace metals in water consumed by humans can have a negative impact on human health. Water sampling by the Mines and Geosciences Bureau in 2002 found that mercury in some local waterways exceeded the government standards. Small scale miners operating in the area before the arrival of TVI were using mercury and TVI has been processing their mine tailings. A 2005 report by the Multipartite Monitoring Team also reported high mercury levels in lower Canatuan Creek.84 That part of the creek also had arsenic, cyanide and lead levels that exceeded standards.

The farmers, fish-farmers and fishers who have constantly opposed the mine say that they were not adequately consulted about the project, or about its potential impact on water quality. The Local Government Code of 1992 states that community consultations should be conducted prior to implementation of such projects. When the company held a series of information campaigns from 1996 onwards, it was primarily in response to local resolutions and petitions opposing the mine. The human right to an adequate standard of living entails the right to full and equal participation in developmental and environmental planning and decision making, and in shaping all policies affecting one’s community and living conditions, at the local, national and international levels.

TVI operations have also had an impact on the livelihoods of 8,000 small-scale miners who were already in the area when the company arrived and who had developed an informal economy based on subsistence mining.85 Despite efforts to obtain legal recognition, these small-scale miners are still working without official permits”.86 Nevertheless, their activities had generated a myriad of associated small businesses and provided direct and indirect employment for people living in the area, including a multi-purpose cooperative and a store selling food and general supplies.87 The small-scale miners have complained of intimidation and harassment carried out by TVI’s security force.88 They say that the security force has engaged strategies such as bulldozing mining tunnels, enforcing a food blockade, and intentionally interrupting the cooperative’s supply routes.89 The miners have filed a series of related complaints.90 The small-scale miners feel that the Government of the Philippines has failed to protect them from company actions that eventually led to the loss of their livelihoods.

The human right to adequate housing

The Committee on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights, which monitors and interprets the covenant, concluded that forced evictions are incompatible with the requirements of the covenant.91

The 1987 Philippine constitution also stipulates that “urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished, except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner”. Resettlement must be done with “adequate consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated”.92 When people are resettled, they can be exposed to increased risks, including poverty, homelessness, landlessness, food insecurity, increased morbidity and mortality, unemployment, marginalization, loss of access to common resources, loss of access to public services, and loss of social cohesion. As well, resettlement can lead to increasing risks to host populations.93 In the case of indigenous peoples, displacement from traditional territories also means loss of cultural identity and is a threat to their existence as a people. In addition to indigenous peoples, women, children, and the elderly are most vulnerable to resettlement.94

All persons should possess a degree of security of tenure which guarantees legal protection against forced eviction, harassment and other threats.

General Comment 7 on the Human Rights to Adequate Housing (Article 1)

There have been forcible evictions in Canatuan since mid-2003, when the mining company secured support from the Philippine government to forcibly demolish the facilities of the small-scale miners and to remove the miners from the area. The company said that it paid people to leave, offering compensation that it said was many times higher than what was legally required.95 Those receiving the compensation say the process is neither transparent nor equitable.96 Some Subanon who have been displaced complain that their farmlands have been bulldozed without proper compensation.97 As well, the people who received eviction notices issued by the company perceived them as threats.98 Harassment of small-scale miners and incidents of violence by security forces destroying the miners’ facilities for the mining company have been documented.99 These include an incident on May 22nd 2006, when the family of a small-scale miner was forcibly removed and their home destroyed by the security forces, working with Subanon who supported the company.100

When mining started in mid-2004, the company estimated there were still 150 families living on land in the path of the growing open-pit mine.101 In June 2005, 50 families near the pit staged a vigil to prevent the company’s security forces from demolishing their homes. At first, the vigil was successful. But several days later, the security forces returned in greater number. A bulldozer was used to destroy the gardens in which the miners grew their food, including root crops and bananas.102 By June 2006, the company estimated that 30 families remained of which five were indigenous Subanon.

The case of the Galves family

In June 2006, the home of the Galves family, located in the mining area, was destroyed. On this point everyone agrees. There are conflicting accounts of who demolished the home, whether anyone was in it at the time, and whether private property was confiscated. This case indicates the confusion that often prevails when eviction precedes commercial development, especially when the evictions are carried out by local people.

Those affected say company security forces participated in the destruction of the home, wounding a number of people, and confiscating private property. The company said the home was not destroyed by its security forces but by people belonging to the Siocon Subanon Association.103

Erdulfo Comisas, an official with the Siocan Subanon Association and a member of the Council of Elders, said he mobilized a team of Subanon to dismantle shanties owned by non-indigenous people. No one was home, he said, when the home was destroyed. However, a SCAA who monitored the incident said at least 20 members of TVI’s security force were there. He thought the demolition was poorly done because there was no official from the local community present to observe and it had been done at night.104

When we discussed this incident during our consultations with the Siocon Subanon Association and the Council of Elders, they denied that the security forces were present.

The human right to favourable conditions of work

The human right to work is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Conventions of the International Labour Organization and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Article 7 of the covenant describes the human right to work as the right to fair wages, equal pay for work of equal value without discrimination, and a safe and healthy working environment. Article 8 refers to the right to form trade unions and the right to strike.

National legislation in the Philippines also protects the human rights of workers. The constitution directs the state to protect these rights and to promote the welfare of workers. It affirms the right to association, collective bargaining, and the right to strike.

TVI Resource Development has created salaried jobs in an area where such jobs did not exist (although thousands of small-scale miners were already in the area). However, there have been complaints made against the company for some of its labour practices. An attempt to form a union in 2005 failed and workers told organizers from the National Federation of Labour that the company had not paid overtime to some workers and had terminated others without due process and without paying social security premiums.105

The union organizers said the company workers were difficult to organize because the area is guarded by security forces and meetings had to be held many km away.106 Several workers told the research team that people were afraid that the creation of the union would cause the company to close the mine. “It is a good thing that there is no union, because at least we still have a job,” one worker said.107

There is also a continuing disagreement over whether the 160 SCAA at the mine are employees and could therefore join the union. A 2003 contract signed with the members of the SCAA asserted that they were employees of the mine. However, the 2005 memorandum of agreement between TVI Resource Development and the Philippine army said they were not. The company still pays their salaries, provides uniforms and equipment, but does not provide housing. This has created a great deal of confusion about their status. A large number of the workers supporting the creation of the union in 2005 were SCAA.108

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work…

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article 7)

Dionison Jubilan, the assistant security manager for the company, said the majority of the security forces believe they are company employees.109 The research team asked SCAA about their status. “We have become TVI’s private army,” an unnamed SCAA told the research team. “We took part in demolitions and have sacrificed a lot.” He said the security forces did not want to return to army duties because they feared that rampant corruption in the army meant they would not be paid. The company is now conducting seminars for its security forces to explain their role.

TVI Resources Development created a labour management council in 2005 where employees can air their grievances, discuss other problems, and talk about areas where the company could improve its performance. Discussions at the council have led to better working conditions, wages and benefits. However, in terms of housing and work opportunities, some discrimination still exists towards indigenous people.

In early 2004, Subanon workers lived in what the locals called chicken cages in an area known as Manokan. These shelters were about two metres tall and had room for only one person. Non-indigenous workers lived in a bunkhouse, which was more solidly constructed than the huts. Later in 2004, the indigenous workers were moved to better quarters in an area called Manhattan. But their housing is still of poorer quality than that of non-indigenous workers. Mila Corpuz, former manager of human resources for the company, said she hopes to make further improvements.110

In terms of working conditions, the company has four types of employees: managers, technical supervisors, skilled workers and unskilled labour.111 In the last two categories there are temporary and regular workers. The workers told the research team that the unskilled, temporary jobs are mostly filled by indigenous people. Usually, workers start out on a casual status, become probationary workers after three months and can apply for regular status after six months.

Regular employees receive benefits and privileges that are not available to casual and probationary workers. They receive a salary of 220 pesos a day, plus 15 days of vacation leave and 15 days sick leave a year.112 They are eligible for a bonus if they work a full month without taking any leave. In addition, regular workers enjoy an extra month of pay each year (the so-called 13th month). They must be given 15 days notice of termination and receive a month’s pay, plus unused sick and vacation leave when they go. In December 2005, the company started a health insurance plan for regular employees, but not their families. The company plans to extend the coverage to family members in 2007.113

Apart from these benefits, every employee interviewed confirmed that once they became regular staff, they were provided with steel boots, rubber shoes, a t-shirt, and a raincoat. They also receive free meals. The workers interviewed by the research team believe that the company paid better wages than other companies in the region.

The human right to education

The Philippine government, which is heavily indebted, has repeatedly cut spending on education and health. Since 1997, real per capita spending by the national government on education has fallen 19%. Health spending has dropped 43% in the same period.114 Between 1997 and 2003, government spending on education has been only 3.2% of gross domestic product, a broad measure of the economy. 115 In the Siocon area, there are no government education services, except for primary schools.116

The Canatuan community built its own school in 1998 and then expanded it over the years with support from local government officials. Materials for the school had to be smuggled past company checkpoints. By January 2003, it had 182 students attending grades one through five. More students were expected to register in June 2003, the beginning of the new school year, necessitating an expansion of the building. The provincial governor donated the necessary construction materials.117 The material arrived in Canatuan in August 2003 and was placed at the Canatuan Primary School. Later that year, TVI, through its chief security consultant, confiscated the material. 118 The company said the materials were damaged. It replaced them at its own expense.

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article 13)

The company used these materials to build a two-room primary school about six kilometres away, near a security post manned by SCAA. It did this without consulting the local community. It also provided three schoolteachers, school supplies and other facilities.

Residents complain that the new school is too far away, inaccessible due to landslides caused by mining, and too close to the armed security post.119 Parents are concerned for the safety of their children, who must now walk a long way on roads used by heavy equipment. The distance, bad weather, and security risks have significantly reduced school attendance. The company attempted to address some of these complaints by providing vehicles and raincoats on rainy days. Local critics of the company said that by seizing the materials and building the school where it wanted, the company was obliterating an existing community and creating a new one.

The company said it relocated the school for safety reasons. There is an open-pit mine above the community where the previous school was located and the company was worried about boulders falling on the school and community below.120 The company promised to provide a school bus by January 2007.

There are currently 182 pupils in elementary school and 32 students in a high school, which started this year. The majority of the students are Subanon, whose parents are employed by the mining company. There is no special curriculum for the indigenous Subanon. The company has developed a special summer job program for Subanon students so that they can gain work experience while being paid.


Conclusions and Recommendations


The presence of TVI Resource Development has created some jobs in an impoverished area and generated revenues for the indebted national government.

However, the arrival of the mining company in Canatuan has also divided the Subanon people. This in turn has had a negative impact on their right to self-determination and on their system of governance. Security measures implemented by the mining firm have contributed to militarization of the area. This militarization has had a negative impact on the ability of the Subanon to enjoy the human right to security and the human right to housing. Mining activity appears to have increased the levels of sediment and metals in some local waterways, threatening the human right to an adequate standard of living.

The Philippine government holds the primary obligation to protect the human rights of its people. In the Canatuan example, there has been a clear gap between the existing legal framework and its application. By not enforcing national laws enacted for this purpose, the government has allowed the company to engage in activities that have violated the human rights of local communities.


– For the government of the Philippines

The Government of the Philippines should assume responsibility for investigating the current conflict in Canatuan and for adopting procedures that would ensure such examples do not reoccur in future. The purpose of such a process would be to determine the legality of the company’s current activities as well as its proposed expansion of activities in the area. Attention should be given to equal access to justice, the creation of appropriate complaints mechanisms, access to information, and controls over military and paramilitary security forces. In addition, an independent body should be created to monitor and report on the implementation of these procedures and to actively solicit the views of the local communities.

Local communities should be given capacity training in the principles of human rights so that they can identify abuses and assert their rights. This training should include the provision of the appropriate documents outlining human rights. The Philippine system of Barangay Human Rights Action Centres should be strengthened and their locations expanded. There are about 14,406 such centres in the country, but they are concentrated in only a few regions. The Philippine government should endorse the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and ratify the International Labour Organization Convention No. 169. The use of human rights impact assessments should be institutionalized and these assessments should be used whenever licences and permits are issued or renewed.

– For the company

The company should make all efforts to resolve the many issues and conflicts in Canatuan before proceeding with expansion of its operations in adjacent areas. This will require participation in an independent monitoring procedure and an agreement to work directly with affected communities who might oppose their investment. Until such processes are in place, TVI should halt its operations in Canatuan, as well as its expansion plans. TVI should, at least temporarily, ensure that paramilitary security forces are disarmed, and it should ensure that community claims of damages are investigated and resolved without delay.



1- The groups were: Siocon Subanon Association Apu’ Manglang Glupa Pusaka, Save Siocon Paradise Movement, Pigsalabukan Bansa Subanon – Subanon Federation, The Legal Rights and Natural Resources Center, Inc.– Kasama sa Kalikasan, The DIOPIM Committee on Mining Issues, Philippine Indigenous Peoples Links, MiningWatch Canada, Tebtebba.

2- The Philippines ranked 121 out of 142 on the 2006. See Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index. (Accessed March 19, 2007).

3- Hernandez, Carolina G. and Ubarra, Ma. Cecilia. Restoring and Strengthening Civilian Control: Best practices in civil-military relations in the Philippines. 1999. (Accessed July 12, 2006)

4- Committee to Protect Journalists. (Accessed March 19, 2007).

5- CIA World Factbook. (Accessed March 19, 2007).

6- Sanz, P. Mining and Mindanao: What fate awaits the communities? A special report. 2005. (Accessed February 22, 2005).

7- Rodil, R.B. Kalinaw Mindanaw; The story of the GRP-MNLF peace process, 1975-1996. Davao City: Alternative Forum for Research in Mindanao, 2000.

8- Christian Aid and PIPLinks. Breaking Promises, Making Profits: Mining in the Philippines. December 2004. p.6.

9- In December 2004, the Philippine Supreme Court reversed its ruling which nullified the Financial or Technical Assistance Agreement (FTAA) of the Australian firm Western Mining Corporation (WMC) over a huge area straddling three provinces in South Cotabato, and all provisions concerning FTAA and other permits that can be granted to foreign-owned corporations.

10- Sanz, P. Mining and Mindanao: What fate awaits the communities? A special report. 2005. (Accessed 22 February 2005).

11- TF 1986:14 as cited in Suminguit, V.J. “The Subanun Culture in Mount Malindang: An ethnography”, Master of Arts in Anthropology thesis, University of the Philippines – Diliman (Unpublished). 1989.

12- Timuay Lambo estimates that the Pito nog Kodologan was organized in the 17th Century. Jesuit priest Fr. Combes wrote in 1621 that Fr. Del Campo, who was assigned in Siocon was killed by the local natives. Based on interview with Timoay Lambo and Timoay Anoy, their Apo Monokon was ordered by Apu Manglang to assassinate the “pari (priest)” because of their proselytization in the area.

13- Consultation with Apu’ Manglang Glupa Pusaka held in April 2006.

14- Interview with Timuay Fernando Mudai and Timuay Noval Lambo held in 2004, 2006.

15- Interview with Timuay Boy Anoy, held in April 2006.

16- The UN General Assembly has not yet voted on the declaration.

17- Gaspar, Karl M. The Lumad’s Struggle in the Face of Globalization. Philippines: Alternate Forum for Research in Mindanao. 2000; and Leonen, Marvic and Ballesteros, Andre. A Divided Court, a Conquered People? Notes on the Supreme Court decision on the constitutionality of the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997. Philippines: LRC-KSK/ Friends of the Earth – Philippines, 2001.

18- Contained in Land Registration Act. (LRA) No. 496 of 1902, LRA of 1903, Public Land Act No. 926 of 1903, Land Act No. 2254 of 1913, Public Land Act 2874 of 1919, Revised Public Land Act No. 926 and the amended Commonwealth Act 141 of 1936 which reversed Land Act No. 2874.

19- Philippines. The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. Art. II Sec. 22.

20- Ibid. Art. XII Sec. 5.

21- Philippines, Mineral and Geosciences Bureau. Republic Act No. 7942 or the Philippine Mining Act of 1995. (Accessed March 19, 2007)

22- See Cruz and Europa as cited in Leonen, Marvic and Ballesteros, Andre. A Divided Court, a Conquered People? Notes on the Supreme Court decision on the constitutionality of the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997. Philippines: LRC-KSK/Friends of the Earth – Philippines, 2001. p.175.

23- TVIRD is also applying to expand to other sites in other regions occupied by different Subanon communities.

24- TVI Pacific. Annual Information Form. p.1-2.

25- Ibid.

26- Benguet Corporation website. (Accessed March 29, 2007).

27- TVI Pacific. Annual Information Form. p.iii

28- TVIRD website. Milestones. (Accessed March 19, 2007).

29- Asuncion, Melizel F. Righting the Wrongs. Legal Rights and Natural Resources Center, Kasama sa Kalikasan, Friends of the Earth-Philippines, October 2005.

30- TVIRD website. (Accessed March 19, 2007)

31- Ibid.

32- Gloria, Violeta. Extracting the Earth: The politics of mining (A Mount Canatuan case). Unpublished. 2005.

33- TVI Pacific. Annual Information Form. p. 4.

34- Ibid.

35- TVI Pacific. “TVI Pacific Provides Operations and Exploration Review.” News release, Nov. 7, 2006.

36- TVI Pacific group of companies. Feasibility Study (Partial) Canatuan Project. Canatuan: September 2002.

37- Asuncion, Melizel F. Righting the Wrongs. Legal Rights and Natural Resources Center – Kasama sa Kalikasam, Friends of Earth-Philippines. October 2005. p. 4.

38- Tripeace, Report of the Fact-Finding Mission Conducted on April 2-7, 1997 and the Follow-up Missions Done in the Period of May to October 1997 in Canatuan.

39- Interview with Leo Jasareno from the Mines and Geosciences Bureau held on 30 March 2006.

40- Philippines, Mineral and Geosciences Bureau. Republic Act No. 7942 or the Philippine Mining Act of 1995. chapter 3, section 16, 1995.

41- “TVI Pacific Lauded by Canadian Ambassador and Philippine Secretary for its Responsible Mining and Environmental Practices”, CCN Matthews. May 16, 2006. (Accessed March 19, 2007)

42- In 2001, CIDA INC., a cost-sharing program inside CIDA that provides a financial incentive to Canadian companies to start a business or provide training in developing countries, rejected a request for funding from TVI Pacific noting incidents of violence associated with the mine project. Information obtained through Access to Information Act.

43- Interview with Canadian Embassy personnel including Gérard Bélanger from CIDA, Manila, held October 2004.

44- Interview with Myrna Jarillas, Senior Program officer and Tom Carrol of CIDA, held in April 2006.

45- Meeting at the Canadian Embassy in Manila of Timuay Boy Anoy and Godofredo Galos held in October 2004.

46- Archaeological, Cultural and Environmental Consultancy, Inc. Archaeological Impact Assessment: TVI Resource Development Philippines, Inc. (Canatuan Project). Manila: 2004. p. 7.

47- Tupo Nog Pito Kobogulalan Pogokbit Nog Gulal Sog Pito Kodolungan. Assembly Resolution No. 01-2004: Resolution on the Decision Pertaining to the Composition and Legitimacy of the Siocon Council of Elders and the Official Position on the Issue of Leadership and Representation of the Canatuan Subanon Community. 3rd Assembly of the Gukoms. Mindanao (Philippines): June 7-10 2004.

48- Ibid.

49- Ibid.

50- Interview with Timuay Boy Anoy, held in April 2006.

51- Interview with Atty. Fausto Lingating held in April 2004. A hearing has yet to be conducted on the case filed by Mato and Anoy.

52- COE members who are not of Timuay lineage or traditional bogolal (leaders) are Fernandez Anda, Ampanan Ansani, Andres Ansani, Danilo Bason, Alito Dandana, Lydia Dandana, Rudy Dandana, Susana Davi, Lembalan Elian, Celestino Guinagag,Vicente Guinagag, Akil Lingala, Antonio Lingala, Etal Lumayas, Panga Lumayas (deceased), Alberto Mais, Juanito Pagilisan, Marciano Sapian (deceased), Danilo Tumangkis, Juanito Tumangkis, and Pancho Tumangkis.

53- Statement of Atty. Fausto Lingating in an interview held last April 2004 in Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur.

54- As cited in Gloria, Violeta. 2005. Extracting the Earth: The politics of mining (A Mount Canatuan case). Unpublished.

55- Interview with NCIP 9 Provincial Officer for Zamboanga del Norte Lista Cawanan Jr. held on 17 April 2006 in Dipolog City.

56- Violeta Gloria, op. cit.

57- So called “revolutionary taxes” were regularly extracted from public transport vehicles using the road.

58- TVI Resources Development Inc. Website. Bringing Security to the Community. (Accessed October 2006).

59- Interview with Advisor, Corporate Affairs, John Ridsdel, TVI Resources Development Inc. held April 5, 2006 in Makati City.

60- Memorandum of Agreement Signed Between TVIRD and the 1st Infantry Division, Philippine Army. October 2005.

61- Consultations with Subanon in Canatuan held in April 2006.

62- Republic of the Philippines. Memorandum Dated 2 May 2002 with Subject Regarding the Final Investigation Report: Case No. CHR-IX-2002-1770 for development aggression. Report was submitted to CHR Legal Section by Mamauag,

J. M, p. 4-5.

63- Tripeace. Report of the Fact-Finding Mission Conducted on April 2-7, 1997 and the Follow-up Missions done in the Period of May to October 1997 in Canatuan.

64- Republic of the Philippines. Memorandum Dated 2 May 2002 with Subject Regarding the Final Investigation Report: Case No. CHR-IX-2002-1770 for development aggression. p. 4-5.

65- Ibid. p. 4-5.

66- Interview with TVIRD security department namely Ret. Col. Dionision Jubilan, Ret. Maj. Nepomunceno Precioso Jr. and Ret. 2nd- Lt. Danilo Silvestre held December 2006.

67- Republic of the Philippines. Memorandum Dated 2 May 2002 with Subject Regarding the Final Investigation Report: Case No. CHR-IX-2002-1770 for development aggression. p.30.

68- Republic of the Philippines, Commission on Human Rights IX’s. Memorandum Addressed to the Legal Section Dated 2 May 2002 Regarding the Final Investigation Report: Case No. CHR-IX-2002-1770 for development aggression victims: Members of the Siocon Subanon Association Inc and other residents. p. 4.

69- Based on consultations with small-scale miners held in Ipil on April 2006.

70- Interview with TVIRD security department namely Ret. Col. Dionision Jubilan, Ret. Maj. Nepomunceno Precioso Jr. and Ret. 2nd- Lt. Danilo Silvestre, held December 2006.

71- Forest Peoples Programme, Philippine Indigenous Peoples Links and World Rainforest Movement. Undermining the Forest, January 2000.

72- Republic of the Philippines. Memorandum Dated 2 May 2002 with Subject Regarding the Final Investigation Report: Case No. CHR-IX-2002-1770 for development aggression.

73- Commission on Human Rights IX also has initiated a dialogue with “some Subanons’ tribal leaders and small scale miners at Siocon” on 5 February 2006 (Ibid).

74- Republic of the Philippines. Commission on Human Rights

– IX. Investigation Report: Re: Complaint of Siocon Subanon Association, Inc. April 2002. p. 11.

75- Affidavit signed on 28 November 1996 in Ipil Municipality, Zamboanga del Sur and notarized on 2 December 1996 in R.T. Lim, Zamboanga del Sur.

76- Affidavit signed on 11 November 1996 and notarized on 20 December 1996 in R.T. Lim, Zamboanga del Sur.

77- Affidavit signed on 28 November 1996 in Ipil Municipality, Zamboanga del Sur and notarized on 2 December 1996 in R.T. Lim, Zamboanga del Sur.

78- Urgent Memorandum from ATTY. Reuben Dasay A. Lingating for Department of Environment and Natural Resources. “Request for temporary halt of operations of TVI in Siocon, Canatuan and immediate action by DENR on the pending petition for the cancellation of TVI MPSA filed by Timuay Boy Anoy before the Office of the Secretariat”. May 4th, 2004.

79- TVI Resources Development Inc. Annual Environmental Protection and Enhancement Program Report for Completed Activities in 2004 and Planned Activities for 2005. Prepared by Jay Nelson and Fidel Bontao. March 8, 2005/September 20, 2005.

80- Estimates provided by Siocon farmers in a consultation held in Siocon, April 2006.

81- Focus group discussion held in Siocon, April 2006.

82- Interview with MGB 9 Asst. Regional Director Joaquin Soriano held in April 2006.

83- Site visit to the company’s compound, April 19, 2006.

84- Photo exhibits in: Multipartite Monitoring Team.

Fourth MMT Report. TVI Resources Development (Phils.) Inc. Sitio Canatuan, Barangay Tabayo, Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte. July 2005. Digital copy provided by Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau last April 2006.

85- Christian Aid and PIPLinks. Breaking Promises, Making Profits: Mining in the Philippines. December 2004. p. 38.

86- Ibid.

87- Ibid.

88- Based on consultation with small-scale miners, held in Ipil on April 2006. Also: See account of Minao family in PipLinks & Christian Aid. Breaking Promises, Making Profits: Mining in the Philippines. December 2004.

89- On 12 March 1997, TVIRD’s security force issued Memorandum Order No.2 advising the army gate, Malusok and Tanuman detachment commanders to “banned (sic) all supplies/goods intended for the small-scale miners cooperative store”.

90- Republic of the Philippines, Commission on Human Rights’ IX.

Memorandum Addressed to the Legal Section Dated 2 May 2002 Regarding the Final Investigation Report: Case No. CHR-IX-2002-1770 for development aggression victims: Members of the Siocon Subanon Association Inc and other residents. p. 4

91- UN Committee on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights. General Comment No 4 on the right to adequate housing, sixth session, 1991; and General Comment No 7 on the right to adequate housing: forced evictions. Sixteenth session, 1997.

92- Republic of the Philippines. The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. Article XIII, Section 10.

93- Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development (MMSD).

Breaking New Ground: Mining, minerals and sustainable development. The Report of the MMSD Project. London: Earthscan. 2002. p.159 and Sonnenberg, Dan, and F. Muenster. Involuntary Resettlement. South Africa: African Institute of Corporate Citizenship. 2001.

94- Sonnenberg, Dan, and F. Muenster. 2001 and Feeney, P. Displacement and the Rights of Women. Oxford: Oxfam. 1995.

95- Letter from Advisor, Corporate Affairs, John Ridsdel to the Canadian Embassy Nov. 17, 2004. Documentation obtained through Acess to Information Act.

96- Based on consultation with Subanon in Canatuan, held in April 2006.

97- Based on consultation with Subanon held in Siocon in April 2006.

98- Interview with Joy Gonzaga held on January 27, 2005 and Affidavit by Joy Gonzaga (

99- See account of Minao family in PipLinks & Christian Aid. Breaking Promises, Making Profits: Mining in the Philippines. 2004. p. 38.

100- Mining Watch Canada. TVI Pacific Again Implicated in Forced Evictions at its Canatuan Project in the Philippines. October 24, 2006. (Accessed March 19, 2007).

101- Subanon IPs Dismantle Illegal Small-Scale Miners Shanty at Canatuan Mine Area, press release, June 26, 2006. (Accessed April 19, 2007).

102- PiPlinks action alert July 12, 2006.

103- TVI website: (Accessed March 19, 2007).

104- Based on an interview with a SCAA (name withheld upon request) held on December 2006. Note: The General Comment on the right to adequate housing specifies that dismantling cannot take place at night See UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR). General Comment 7: The right to adequate housing (art. 11.1 of the Covenant) forced evictions. Sixteenth session, 1997.

105- Interview with Atty. Bong Malonzo and NFL organizers in Zamboanga City held in April 2006.

106- Interview with Attorney Bong Malonzo held in April 2006.

107- Interview with a TVI employee, December 2006.

108- Canatuan Mine Workers Union-NFL Local chapter. List of members. Canatuan, 1st May 2005.

109- Interview with TVIRD security department namely Ret. Col. Dionision Jubilan, Ret. Maj. Nepomunceno Precioso Jr. and Ret. 2nd Lt. Danilo Silvestre held in December 2006.

110- Interview Mila Corpuz, former TVIRD’s Human Resources manager held in April 2006.

111- Ibid.

112- Ibid.

113- Ibid and Interview with Alejandro Sonido, held in December 2006.

114- World Bank, Country Assistance Strategy for the Republic of Philippines. April 19, 2005. (Accessed July 25, 2006).

115- Ibid.

116- Interview with Lullie Micaballo from TVI, Administration Manager, TVI, April 19, 2006.

117- Resolution Requesting the Municipal Mayor Hon. Ceasar

C. Soriano to Donate Immediately a School Building in Sitio Canatuan, Tabayo, Siocon. August 28, 2001. Resolution No. 34 series of 2002.

118- In separate interviews with Onsino Mato, Eddie Cayabyab in 2006

119- Interview with Lullie Micabalo, Administration Manager, TVI, April 19, 2006.

120- Ibid.